Publications by Type

Publications by Nicholas A. Ashford and others listed by publication type



11.       Technology, Globalization and Sustainable Development: Transforming the Industrial State, N. A. Ashford and R. P Hall, Yale University Press, 2011, 720 pages. See:

            For presentations of the ideas addressed in this book see:


10.       Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics: Reclaiming the Environmental Agenda, N.A. Ashford and C.C. Caldart, MIT Press, 2008, 1088 pages. See

9.         Public Participation in Contaminated Communities, N.A. Ashford and K.M. Rest, 2001.  Available at REVISE

8.         Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes N. A. Ashford and C. S. Miller, Second Edition, John Wiley Press, 1998, 440 pages. Available for free at (click on the picture of the book cover)

7.         Industrial Ecology, Nicholas A. Ashford and Raymond Côté (eds.), Special Issue of The Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 5, Number 1/2, 1997, 181 pp (available under ‘Special Issues: Industrial Ecology 1997’ at

6.         Occupational Health and Safety in British Columbia: An Administrative Inventory of the WCB Prevention Division, K. M. Rest and N. A. Ashford, Ashford Associates, Cambridge, MA. 1997, 208 pages.

5.         Technology, Law and the Working Environment, N.A. Ashford and C.C. Caldart, Second  Edition, Island Press, 1996, 641 pages.

4.         Monitoring the Worker for Exposure and Disease: Scientific, Legal and Ethical Considerations in the Use of Biomarkers, N.A. Ashford, C.J. Spadafor, D.B. Hattis and C.C. Caldart, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1990, 224 pp.

3.         Analyzing the Benefits of Health, Safety, and Environmental Regulations, N.A. Ashford et al., Cambridge: Center for Policy Alternatives at MIT, CPA-82-16, September 1982.

2.         Evaluating Chemical Regulations: Trade-Off Analysis and Impact Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making, N.A. Ashford, D. Hattis, G.R. Heaton, J.I. Katz, W.C. Priest, E.M. Zolt, NTIS #PB81-195067, 1980.

1.         Crisis in the Workplace: Occupational Disease and Injury, N.A. Ashford, A Report to the Ford Foundation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, March 2, 1976, 579 pp.


34. “The Clean Air Act” N. A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart in David Coates, Kathy Smith and Charles Walldorf (editors), The Oxford Companion to American Politics, New York: Oxford University Press, July 2012

33. “Reducing Physical Hazards: Encouraging Inherently Safer Production” 2013. Chapter 17 in Robert Boethling .Adelina Voutchkova, and Paul Anastas (Eds) Designing Safer Chemicals Handbook of Green Chemistry Series 9:485-500, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany

32. “Government Regulation of Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety in the United States and the European Union” Nicholas A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart in Occupational and Environmental Health: Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury, 6th ed. Barry S. Levy, David H. Wegman, Rosie Sokas, and Sherry Baron (eds.), Oxford University Press 2010. Available at

31. “Reflections on Environmental Liability Schemes In the United States and European Union: Limitations and Prospects For Improvement” in Environmental Liability: Theoretical Developments and Applications, pp. 59-69, Bar Association of Pireaus, Greece; Presented at the Conference on Environmental Liability, Piraeus Bar Association, Piraeus, Greece, 26-27 June 2009 Available at

30. “Environmental Regulation, Globalization, and Innovation” Chapter 24 in Kevin P. Gallagher (ed.), Handbook on Trade and the Environment Edward Elgar: Chettendam and Northampton, 2009, 297-307. Available at­­­

29. “Environmental Protection Law”, Nicholas A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart in Encyclopedia of Public Health, Elsevier, 2008, pp. 390-401.  Available at

28. “The Legacy of The Precautionary Principle In U.S. Law: The Rise of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment as Undermining Factors in Health, Safety and Environmental Protection” in Nicolas de Sadeleer (ed.), Implementation the Precautionary Principle: Approaches from the Nordic Countries. the EU and the United States Earthscan: London, 2007.  Available at

27. “The Role of the United States–Greek Initiative for Technology Cooperation with the Balkans in Constructing a Unified Environmental Technology Plan” Nicholas A. Ashford and Christi Electris, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 391–397.  Available at

26. "Workers' Compensation," in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th Edition, W.N. Rom (ed.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 2006.  Available at

25. “Government Regulation” Nicholas A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart in Occupational and Environmental Health: Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury, 5th ed. Barry S. Levy and David H. Wegman (eds.), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2005, pp. 39-73.  Available at

24. “Negotiated Regulation, Implementation and Compliance in the United States”, Nicholas A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart in The Handbook of Environmental Voluntary Agreements Euoardo Croci (ed.), Dordrecht, Springer – Environmental and Policy Series, 2005 (43): 135-159.  Available at

23. “Government and Environmental Innovation in Europe and North America” in ­Towards Environmental Innovation Systems Matthias Weber and Jens Hemmelskamp (eds.) Springer, Heidelberg, 2005, pp. 159-174.  ISBN 3-540-22322-3.  Available at

22. “Pathways to Sustainability: Evolution or Revolution?” in Regional Development and Conditions for Innovation in the Network Society, Marina van Geenhuizen, David V. Gibson, and Manuel V. Heitor (eds.), Purdue University Press, 2005, pp. 35-59. Available at

21. “Sustainable Development and Globalisation: New Challenges and Opportunities for Work Organisation” in Promoting New Forms of Work Organization and Other Cooperative Arrangements for Competitiveness and Employability, Christina Nova-Kaltsouni and Michael Kassotakis (eds.), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, (2004) pp. 50-61.  Available at

20.  “Justice in the Global Work Life: The Right to Know, to Participate, and to Benefit in Sustainable Industrial Transformations,” Proceedings of the High-level Conference on Work Life in the 21st Century, 15-17 October 2001, Helsinki, in People and Work Research Reports 49:74-78, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 2002.  Available at

19. “Innovation – The Pathway to Threefold Sustainability” in The Steilmann Report: The Wealth of People: An Intelligent Economy for the 21st Century Lehner, Franz, Charles, Anthony, Bieri, Stephan, and Paleocrassas, Yannis (eds.) Brainduct ® - digital edition, 2001 pp 233-274, based on Ashford, Nicholas A., “Technological, Organisational, and Social Innovation as Pathways to Sustainability.”  Available at

18.  "Multiple Chemical Intolerance and Indoor Air Quality", C. S. Miller and N. A. Ashford in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J. Spengler, J. M. Samet, and J. F. McCarthy (Eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000, chapter 27, 32 pages.  Available at

17.  "An Innovation-Based Strategy for a Sustainable Environment," in Innovation-Oriented Environmental Regulation: Theoretical Approach and Empirical Analysis, J. Hemmelskamp, K. Rennings, F. Leone (Eds.) ZEW Economic Studies. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, New York 2000, pp 67-107 (Proceedings of the International Conference of the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Potsdam, Germany, 27-29 May 1999.)  Available at

16.  "Government Regulation of Occupational Health and Safety," in Occupational Health:  Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease, Fourth Edition, B. S. Levy and D. H. Wegman (eds.), Little Brown, Boston, 1999.

15.  "The Economic and Social Context of Special Populations", in Special Populations in Occupational Health Frumkin, Howard  and Pransky, Glenn (eds.), Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 14(3),1999, pp 485-493.

14.  "The Influence of Information-based Initiatives and Negotiated Environmental Agreements on Technological Change" in Voluntary Approaches in Environmental Policy, C. Cararro and F. Leveque (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Lancaster, UK 1999, pp 137-150.

13.  "A Conceptual Framework for The Use of the Precautionary Principle in Environmental Law," in Raffensperger, C. and Tickner, J. (eds.) Protecting Public Health and the Environment:  Implementing the Precautionary Principle Washington DC: Island Press 1999, pp 198-206.

12.  "Shifting the Focus of Occupational Health and Safety Services", Nicholas A. Ashford and Kathleen M. Rest in Evaluation in Occupational Health Practice, Eva Menckel and Peter Westerholm (Eds.), Butterworth Heinemann, 1999, pp 221-227.

11.  "Economic Issues in Occupational Health and Safety," N. A. Ashford and R. F. Stone, in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, W.N. Rom (ed.), Little, Brown & Company, Boston, MA, 1998, pp 1681-1690.

10.  "Workers' Compensation," in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, W.N. Rom (ed.), Little, Brown & Company, Boston, MA, 1998, pp 1709-1714.

9.  "International Control of Occupational and Environmental Health Hazards," in International Occupational and Environmental Medicine, L. E. Fleming, J. Herzstein, and W. B. Bunn, OEM Press, Boston, 1997, pp 47-62. 8.  "An Innovation-Based Strategy for the Environment," in Worst Things First? The Debate Over Risk-based National Environmental Priorities, A. M. Finkel and D. Golding (eds.), Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, 1994, pp. 275-314. 

7.  "Promoting Technological Changes in the Workplace: Public and Private Initiatives," in Technological Change in the Workplace: Health Impacts for Workers, M. Brown and J. Froines (eds.), UCLA Institute of Industrial Relations, Los Angeles, CA, 1993, pp 23-36.

6.  "Understanding Technological Responses of Industrial Firms to Environmental Problems: Implications for Government Policy," in Environmental Strategies for Industry: International Perspectives on Research Needs and Policy Implications, K. Fischer and J. Schot (eds.), Island Press, Washington, DC, 1993, pp 277-307.  Available at

5.  "Case Definitions for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity," N.A. Ashford and C.S. Miller;  "Allergy and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Distinguished," and "Possible Mechanisms for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity:  The Limbic System and Others," C.S. Miller and N.A. Ashford, in Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: Addendum to Biological Markers in Immunotoxicology, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1992, pp 41-45; 47-63; 139-147. 

4.  "Liability, Innovation, and Safety in the Chemical Industry," N.A. Ashford and R.F. Stone, in The Liability Maze: The Impact of Liability Law on Safety and Innovation, Robert Litan and Peter Huber (eds.), Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 1991, pp 367-427.  Available at

3.  "The 'Right to Know': Toxics Information Transfer in the Workplace," N.A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart, The Annual Review of Public Health (eds.), L. Breslow, J.E. Fielding, and L.B. Lave, Volume 6, May 1985, pp. 383-401.

2.  "Environmental, Health and Safety Regulations and Technological Innovation," N.A. Ashford, G.R. Heaton, W.C. Priest, in Technological Innovation for a Dynamic Economy, C. T. Hill and J. M. Utterback (eds.), Pergamon Press, Inc., NY, 1979, pp. 161-221.  Available at

1.  "The Effects of Health, Safety, and Environmental Regulation on Technological Change in the Chemical Industry: Theory and Evidence," N.A. Ashford and G.R. Heaton, in Federal Regulation and Chemical Innovation, C.T.Hill (ed.), American Chemical Society, 1979, pp.45-66.



89. Letter to the Editor: “Trade Policy” Winter 2014 Issues in Science and Technology:14-16. Available at

88. Book Review (2013): “Climate Change Geoengineering: Philosophical Perspectives, Legal Issues, Governance Frameworks, edited by Wil C. G. Burns and Andrew L. Strauss. Anthem Enviroexperts Review. Available at

87. “A Four-day Workweek: a Policy for Improving Employment and Environmental Conditions in Europe” (2013). N. A. Ashford and G. Kallis. The European Financial Review April-May 2013, pp. 53-58. Available at

86. “‘Friday off’: Reducing Working hours in Europe” (2013). Giorgos Kallis, Michael Kalush, Hugh O’Flynn, Jack Rossiter, and Nicholas Ashford, Sustainability 4(5):1545-1567. Available at Type in “Ashford” in author search.

85. “Addressing the Crisis in Employment and Consumer Demand: Reconciliation with Financial and Environmental Sustainability” (2012). N. A. Ashford, R. P. Hall, and R. Ashford. The European Financial Review October-November 2012, pp. 63-68. Available at

84. “Broadening Capital Acquisition with the Earnings of Capital as a Means of Sustainable Growth and Environmental Sustainability” (2012). R. Ashford, R. P. Hall, and N. A Ashford. The European Financial Review October-November 2012, pp. 70-74. Available at

83. “The Crisis in Employment and Consumer Demand: Reconciliation with Environmental Sustainability” (2012). N.A Ashford, R. P. Hall, and R.H. Ashford.  Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. Volume 2, Issue 1: 1–22, March 2012, Available at:

82. “Major Challenges To Education for Sustainable Development: Can the Current Nature of Institutions of Higher Education Hope to Educate the Change Agents Needed for Sustainable Development?” (2010) Available at

81a. “The Importance of Regulation-Induced Innovation for Sustainable Development” N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall (2011). Sustainability 3(1): 270-292. Available at Type in “Ashford” in author search.

Based on an article previously published in EKONOMIAZ:Revista Vasca de Economia, Número 75. III/10, ECO-INNOVACIÓN. MÁS ALLÁ DE LOS FACTORES, LA PRODUCTIVIDAD DE LOS RECURSOS NATURALES. English: Environmental Regulation, Globalization, and Innovation: Integrating Industrial, Environmental, and Trade Policies. Available at Spanish: Regulación medioambiental, globalización e innovación: integración de las políticas industriales, medioambientales y comerciales Available at

81b. See also: “Regulation-Induced Innovation for Sustainable Development” N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall (2012).Administrative & Regulatory News 37(3):21-23, American Bar Association.

80. “The Role of A General Safety Requirement in Canada’s Health Protection Regime: A Research Report To Health Canada “Options for a Statutory General Safety Requirement (2006) Jamie Benidickson, Lyle Fairbairn, Claire Franklin, Nicholas Ashford, Elizabeth Nielsen, and Daniel Krewski. University of Ottawa, October 31, 2006.

79. “Science, Society, and Sustainability: Challenges for Research and Policy in the 21st Century.”  Science, Society & Sustainability: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (November 2009, Athens), E. Koukios, D. Gibson, and L. Karaoglanoglou (eds), Santorini, Greece 18-12 June 2006, pp. 9-24. available at

78. “Rethinking the Role of Information in Chemicals Policy: Implications for TSCA and REACH”, Lars Koch and Nicholas A. Ashford, Journal of Cleaner Production 14(1): 31-46 2006. Available at Revised version published in Environmental Law Network International 2(2005):22-37. Available at

77. “Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporating Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health, and Safety Decisions” International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 5(2/3/4):112-124, 2005. Based on an article found in Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 2004; 17(1): 59-67 and reprinted in Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2005; 11(1): 85-96.  Available at

76. “Scientific, Ethical and Legal Challenges in Work-Related Genetic Testing in the United States,” Eur. J. Oncol. Library, 4: 33-59, 2005. Available at

75a. “Major Challenges To Engineering Education For Sustainable Development: What Has To Change To Make It Creative, Effective, And Acceptable To The Established Disciplines”, Presented at the Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development, 24-25 October 2002, Delft, The Netherlands. Expanded version published in International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 3(4): 2004, pp 239-250. Available at  (75b.) See 2010 revision: “Major challenges to education for sustainable development: can the current nature of institutions of higher education hope to educate the change agents needed for sustainable development”?

74. “Co-optimisation Through Increased Willingness, Opportunity and Capacity: A Generalisable Concept of Appropriate Technology Transfer” Harn Wei Kua and Nicholas A. Ashford, International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialization 2004 3(3):324-334.

73.  “The Feasibility of Encouraging Inherently Safer Production in Industrial Firms” Zwetsloot G.I.J.M. and N. Askounes Ashford, in a Special Issue on Safety and Design, Safety Science, 2003, 41(2/3):219-240.  E. Fadier Guest Editor.  Available at

72. “Pathways To Sustainable Industrial Transformations: Cooptimising Competitiveness, Employment, And Environment*”Presented at the Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development, 24-25 October 2002, Delft, The Netherlands.

71. “Technology-Focused Regulatory Approaches For Encouraging Sustainable Industrial Transformations: Beyond Green, Beyond The Dinosaurs, And Beyond Evolutionary Theory”, Presented at the 3rd Blueprint Workshop on Instruments for Integrating Environmental and Innovation Policy, 26-27 September 2002, Brussels.

70. “The Crisis in U.S. and International Cancer Policy” S. S. Epstein, N. A. Ashford, B. Blackwelder, G. Cohen, E. Goldsmith, A. Mazzocchi, and Q. D. Young, International Journal of Health Services, 32(4): 669-707, 2002.  Available at

69. “Inherently Safer Production, A Natural Complement to Cleaner Production” Zwetsloot G. and N. A. Ashford (2002), Industry and Environment 25(3-4): 84-87, UN Environmental Programme, Paris.

68. Pathways to Sustainable Industrial Transformations: Cooptimizing Competitiveness, Employment, and Environment Nicholas A. Ashford, Wim Hafkamp, Frits Prakke, Philip Vergragt, et al., 30 June 2001, ASHFORD ASSOCIATES, Cambridge, MA 02139.  See

67. “Implementing A Precautionary Approach In Decisions Affecting Health, Safety, And The Environment: Risk, Technology Alternatives, And Tradeoff Analysis” in The Role of Precaution in Chemicals Policy, Favorita Papers 01/2002, Elisabeth Freytag, Thomas Jakl, Gerhard Loibl, Michael Wittmann (eds.), Diplomatic Academy, Vienna, pp. 128-140.  Available at

66. “Government And Innovation in Europe And North America”, A Special Issue on Ecological Modernization, Sonnenfeld, David and Mol, Arthur, (Eds.) American Behavioral Scientist, Volume 45, No. 9, pp. 1417-1434, 2002.  Available at

65.  "Negotiated Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety agreements in the United States: Lessons for Policy", N.A. Ashford and C.C. Caldart, in Journal of Cleaner Production, 2001, Volume 9, Number 2, pp 99-120.  Available at

64.  "The Role of the Firm in Protecting Health, Safety, and the Environmental", in Greek American Trade: The Magazine of the American-Hellenic Chamber of Commerce, September/October 1999, pp. 48-53.

63.  "Porter Debate Stuck in 1970s" in The Environmental Forum, Environmental Law Institute, Washington, D.C., September/October 1999, p.3.  Available at

62.  "Compliance Costs: The Neglected Issue of Technological Innovation", in the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work Magazine, Bilbao, Fall 1999, pp. 30-33.

61.  "Encouraging Inherently Safer Production in European Firms: A Report from the Field" N.A. Ashford and G. Zwetsloot, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Special Issue on Risk Assessment and Environmental Decision Making, A. Amendola and D. Wilkinson (eds.), 78(2000): 123-144.  Available at

60.  "Low-level Chemical Sensitivity: Implications for Research and Social Policy", Brown, Amy and Myron Mehlman (eds.), Toxicology and Industrial Health: Special Issue on Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, April-June 1999, 15(3-4), pp. 421-7.  Available at

59.  "Social and Policy Implications of Low-Level Exposures to Chemicals", in Risk, Health, and Environment, NGO Background documents for the Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health and Parallel Healthy Planet Forum 16-18 June 1999, Maureen E. Butter (ed.), pp 31-34.  Available at

58.  "The Economic and Social Context of Special Populations" in Special Populations in Occupational Health Frumkin, Howard  and Pransky, Glenn (eds.), Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 14(3),1999, pp 485-493

57.  "Negotiation as a Means of Developing and Implementing Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety Policy" Charles C. Caldart and Nicholas A. Ashford, Harvard Environmental Law Review, 23(1):141-202, 1999.   Available at

56.  "Low-Level Exposures to Chemicals Challenge Both Science and Regulatory Policy" N.A. Ashford and C.S. Miller, Environmental Science and Technology, November 1998.

55.  "Empowering Workers To Negotiate Technological Change for Sustainability," N.A. Ashford, M.M. Mathiesen & R.F. Stone, November 1998.

54.  "Assessing and Rationalizing the Management of a Portfolio of Clean Technologies: Experience from a French Environmental Fund and a World Bank Cleaner Production Demonstration Project in China" N. Peltier & N.A. Ashford, Journal of Cleaner Production, 1998, 6:111-117.

53.  "The Importance Of Taking Technological Innovation Into Account in Estimating The Costs and Benefits Of Worker Health and Safety Regulation", in Costs and Benefits of Occupational Safety and Health: Proceedings of the European Conference on Costs and Benefits of Occupational Health and Safety 1997, The Hague, Holland, 28-30 May 1997, J. Mossink & F. Licher (eds.), 1998, pp 69-78.  Available at

52.  "Policies for The Promotion Of Inherent Safety", New Solutions, Summer 1997, pp 46-52.

51.  "Overview of the Special Issue on Industrial Ecology", Ashford, N. A. and Côté, R. P. (eds.), Journal of Cleaner Production, 1997. 5(1/2), pp i-iv (available under ‘Special Issues: Industrial Ecology 1997’ at

50.  "Industrial Safety: The Neglected Issue in Industrial Ecology" in the Special Issue on Industrial Ecology, Ashford, N. A. and Côté, R. P. (eds,), Journal of Cleaner Production, 1997. 5(1/2), pp 115-121 (available at

49.  "Empirical Approaches for the Investigation of Toxicant-Induced Loss of Tolerance", C. Miller, N. Ashford, R. Doty, M. Lamielle, D. Otto, A. Rahill and L. Wallace, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 105, Supplement 2, March 1997, pp 515-519.  Available at

See also

48.  "The Role of Labour in Choosing and Implementing Information-based Technologies" in Work in the Information Society, Proceedings of the International Symposium, 20-22 May 1996, Finish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki 1996, pp 56-63.  Available at

47.  "Low-level Chemical Sensitivity: Current Perspectives" International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1996. 68:367-376. Available at

46.  “Monitoring the Worker and the Community for Chemical Exposures and Disease: Legal and Ethical Considerations in the U.S." The Science of the Total Environment 1996. 184:45-49.

45.  Worker Compensation for Radiation-Induced Illness: A Re-examination of Past Practices and Options for Change, A Report to the Department of Energy, N. A. Ashford, C. C. Caldart, D. B. Hattis, and R. F. Stone, July 1996.

44.  Identification of Pollution Prevention (PP) Technologies for Possible Inclusion in Enforcement Agreements Using Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPS) and Stratikopoulos, May 8, 1996.

43.  Evaluation of the Relevance for Worker Health and Safety of Existing Environmental Technology Data-bases for Cleaner and Inherently Safer Technologies: A Report to the European Commission, Ashford, N., Banoutsos, I., Christiansen, K., Hummelmose, B. and Stratikopoulos, D. April 1996.

42.  "Chemical Sensitivity: Perspectives from North America and Europe," C.S. Miller and N. A. Ashford, Proceedings of the Conference on Healthy Buildings '95:  An International Conference on Healthy Buildings in Mild Climates, Milan, September 11-14, 1995, 19 pages.

41.  Chemical Sensitivity in Selected European Countries:  An Exploratory Study, Nicholas A. Ashford et al., A Report to the European Commission, November 1995. 

40.  "Exploiting Opportunities for Pollution Prevention in EPA Enforcement Agreements," Monica Becker and Nicholas Ashford, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 29 No. 5, August 1995, American Chemical Society, pp 220A-226A. Available at

39.  "Recent Experience Encouraging the Use of Pollution Prevention in Enforcement Settlements B Final Report," Monica M. Becker and Nicholas A. Ashford, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Final Report, EPA 300-R-95-006; NTIS No. PB95232781, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, May 1995. 

38.  Designing the Sustainable Enterprise: Research Needs and Policy Implications for a Sustainable Future, Nicholas A. Ashford and Ralph Meima, Summary Report of the Second International Research Conference held November 1993, Tufts University, Supplement to Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol. 3, Part 2, 1994, 40 pp.   

37. Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production, United Nations Environmental Program, Paris, 1994, ISBN 92-807-1442-2, 32 pp. Available at

36. "Monitoring the Worker and the Community for Chemical Exposure and Disease: Legal and Ethical Considerations in the U.S.,"  Clinical Chemistry, 40/7B Supplement,  pp. 1426-1437, July 1994.  Available at

35.  "Chemical Sensitivity: An Emerging Public Health and Environmental Problem," Nicholas A. Ashford and Claudia S. Miller, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 14, Number 3, June 1993, pp 451-467. 

34.  The Encouragement of Technological Change for Preventing Chemical Accidents: Moving Firms from Secondary Prevention and Mitigation to Primary Prevention, N.A. Ashford et al., A Report to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development at MIT, Cambridge, MA, July 1993.  Available at

33. "Recycling the Plastic Package" R.F. Stone, A. J. Sagar, N.A. Ashford, Technology Review, Volume 95, Number 5, July 1992, pp. 48-56.

32.  Package Deal: The Economic Impacts of Recycling Standards for Packaging in Massachusetts, Robert F. Stone and Nicholas A. Ashford, March 1991.

31.  The Art Of The Possible: The Feasibility of Recycling Standards for Packaging, Robert F. Stone, Nicholas A. Ashford, and Geoffrey Lomax, February 1991.

30.  "Policy Considerations for Anticipating and Preventing Accidents," Proceedings of Enprotech '91 International Environmental Conference, Taiwan, 30-31 January 1991.

29.  The Role of Insurance and Financial Responsibility Requirements in Preventing and Compensating Damage from Environmental Risks, Nicholas A. Ashford, Sharon Moran and Robert F. Stone, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development at MIT, CTPID 89-1, 1989.

28.  The Design of Programs to Encourage Hazardous Waste Reduction: An Incentives Analysis, N.A. Ashford, A. Cozakos, R. F. Stone and K. Wessel, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science and Research, October 1988.

27.  "Science and Values in the Regulatory Process," Nicholas A. Ashford, in Statistical Science, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Volume 3, Number 3, August 1988, pp. 377-383.

26. "Regulation and Technology Options: The Case of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde," K.M. Rest and N.A. Ashford, Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, Volume 1, Spring 1988, pp. 63-96.

25.  The Role of Changes in Statutory/Tort Law and Liability in Preventing and Compensating Damages from Future Releases of Hazardous Waste, Nicholas A. Ashford, Sharon Moran and Robert F. Stone, with contributions from Gordon Bloom and Daniel Nyhart, a Report to the Special Legislative Commission on Liability for Releases of Oil and Hazardous Material, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, October 1987.

24.  "New Scientific Evidence and Public Health Imperatives," N.A. Ashford, in Environmental Impact Assessment Review 27, Volume 7, Number 3, September 1987, pp. 203-206.

23.  "Changes and Opportunities in the Environment for Technology Bargaining," Nicholas A. Ashford and Christine Ayers, Notre Dame Law Review, Volume 62, Number 5, June 1987, pp. 810-858.  Available at

22.  "New Scientific Evidence and Public Health Imperatives," N.A. Ashford, in New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 316, Number 17, April 23, 1987, pp. 1084-1085.

21.  "Policy Issues for Consideration in Transferring Technology to Developing Countries," N. A. Ashford and Christine Ayers, Ecology Law Quarterly, School of Law, University of California, Berkeley, Volume 12:4, 1985, pp. 871-905.

20.  "Using Regulation to Change the Market for Innovation," N.A. Ashford, C. Ayers, R.F. Stone, Harvard Environmental Law Review, Volume 9, Number 2, Summer 1985, pp. 419-466.  Available at

19.  "Human Monitoring: Scientific, Legal, and Ethical Considerations," Nicholas A. Ashford, Christine J. Spadafor, and Charles C. Caldart, Harvard Environmental Law Review, Volume 8, Issue 2, Summer 1984, pp. 263-363.  Available at

18.  "Advisory Committees in OSHA and EPA: Their Use in Regulatory Decision-Making," Science, Technology, & Human Values, Volume 9, Issue 1, Winter 1984, pp. 72-82.  Available at

17.  "The Use of Technical Information in Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulation:  A Brief Guide to the Issues," Science, Technology, & Human Values, Winter, 1984, pp. 130-133.

16.  "Regulation and Technological Innovation in the Chemical Industry," Nicholas A. Ashford and George R. Heaton, Jr., Law and Contemporary Problems, Duke University School of Law, Volume 46, Number 3, Summer 1983, pp. 109-157.  Available at

15.  "Law and Science Policy in Federal Regulation of Formaldehyde," Nicholas A. Ashford, William C. Ryan and Charles C. Caldart, in Science, 25 November 1983, Volume 222, pp. 894-900. Available at

14.  "The Control of Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace: A Prescription for Prevention," Nicholas A. Ashford and Charles C. Caldart, Industrial Relations Law Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, 1983, pp. 523-563.  Available at

13.  "A Hard Look at Federal Regulation of Formaldehyde: A Departure from Reasoned Decision-Making," Nicholas A. Ashford, William C. Ryan, and Charles C. Caldart, Harvard Environmental Law Review, Volume 7: 297-370, 1983. Available at

12.  "A  Framework for Examining the Effects of Industrial Funding on Academic Freedom and the Integrity of the University," Science, Technology & Human Values, April 1983, pp.16-23.

11.  "Risk Assessment and the Design of Policy of Worker Protection," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Volume 3: 241-242, January 1983.

10.  "Airborne Lead: A Double Standard in Worker/Public Protection?" Dale Hattis, Robert Goble and Nicholas A. Ashford, Environment, Volume 24, Number 1, January/February 1982, pp. 14-20, 33-42.

9.  "Occupational Safety and Health: A Report on Worker Perceptions," Richard L. Frenkel, W. Curtiss Priest and Nicholas A. Ashford, Monthly Labor Review, September 1980, pp. 11-14.

8.  Alternatives to Cost-Benefit Analysis in Regulatory Decisions," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 363, April 30, 1981, pp. 129-137.  Available at

7.  "Regulation of Technical Innovation," N.A. Ashford and G.R. Heaton, EPA Journal, September 1979, pp. 32-34.

6.  "Government Influence on the Process of Innovation in Europe and Japan," with Thomas J. Allen, James M. Utterback, Marvin A. Sirbu, Nicholas A. Ashford and J. Herbert Hollomon, Research Policy, Volume 7, Number 2, April 1978, pp. 124-149.

5.  "The Role of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Decisions Concerning Safety and the Environment," from the Proceedings of the FDA Symposium on Risk-Benefit Decisions and the Public Health, Colorado Springs, February 17, 1978; FDA, Office of Health Affairs, HEW-FDA #80-1069, 1980, pp. 159-168.

4.  "Unsafe Working Conditions: Employee Rights Under LMRA and OSHA," N.A. Ashford and J.I. Katz, Notre Dame Lawyer, Volume 52, Number 5, June 1977, pp. 802-836.  Available at

3.  "Regulation and Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry," N.A. Ashford, S.E. Butler and E.M. Zolt, presented to the HEW Review Panel on New Drug Regulation, released July 1977.

2.  Some Considerations in Choosing an Occupational Noise Exposure Regulation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 550/9-76-007, February 1976.

1.  "Worker Health and Safety: An Area of Conflicts," Monthly Labor Review, Volume 98, Number 9, September 1975, pp. 3-11.